Laboratory Microscopes

The microscope is an instrument that allows to observe objects that are not perceptible to the human eye. This is achieved through an optical system composed of lenses, which form and amplify the image of the object being observed.

One of the great advances that the world of science had occurred with the arrival of the Optical Microscope. This invention was the starting point of a great variety of advances in the world of science, which started from the world of Microscopy and which also changed the way of seeing the world, from the possibility of studying Bacteria (which gave march to Bacteriology) until the analysis of our own blood with the discovery of Red and White Blood Cells, which was a strong advance in the world of medicine.

The Microscope and its evolution

The first great advances in science and in particular in the biological sciences are due in part to the invention of the optical microscope, when at the end of the seventeenth century Anton van Leeuwenhoek, carving lenses, was able to appreciate the world that due to its small size was impossible see with the naked eye: the microscopic world.

Fortunately, years later, thanks to the invention of the optical microscope, man was able to have evidence of the great world that existed beyond the lenses and thus discover an inorganic universe, such as table salt crystals or oxalate salts that They are found in the urine and whose accumulation is the cause of kidney stones. Likewise, he was able to observe the slow movements of an intestinal parasite, the amoeba, which also helped to remove the blindfold of obscurantism and thus take the first steps in modern science. One more fact, among so many remarkable ones, was that thanks to the optical microscope some chemists and doctors, such as Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch, were able to study the diseases that besieged humanity.

Currently there are different types of microscopes, the luminous ones are those that use visible light.

Parts of a microscope

The microscope is a piece of equipment that has been evolving day by day thanks to advances in its optical, electronic and mechanical components. The knowledge of the fundamental structure of a microscope and the parts that compose it as well as its function, will help the user in his interrelation with the microscopic equipment to make the appropriate decisions about the necessary care of the same.

The light microscope is an optical device used to magnify and resolve fine details of a microscopic object. It is made up of different parts: mechanical, optical and lighting.

Base or foot: serves as a support for the microscope and usually has enough weight to give stability to the equipment.
Column: joins the platen to the base and supports the condenser and diaphratm.

Microscope: Halogen vs. LED

High-powered microscopes are often unable to provide excellent quality images due to improper use of light sources, which generally leads to inadequate illumination of the object. You must take into account that any correctly illuminated sample must be free of glare and the light must be scattered evenly in the visual field.

What are the main sources of illumination for a microscope?

Halogen Lamps: Halogen lighting provides white light, which is recommended for most microscope uses. But since it is a type of hot light it is not a good idea to use it to observe live specimens.

LED lamps: Using a microscope with LED lighting is a good alternative to halogen, since the light it emits is with a blue hue and the temperature does not affect the object being

What is a fluorescence microscope?

A fluorescence microscope is a conventional light microscope that is fitted with a complementary lighting fixture, called "fluorescence." This makes it a very useful tool in the field of scientific research, since it allows reaching high levels of sensitivity and microscopic resolution, allowing a different appreciation of the information that can be obtained from specimens and that generally goes unnoticed, with conventional light.

Fluorescence is part of the luminescence processes. In which susceptible molecules emit light from excited states. That they are created electronically by a physical (for example, light absorption), mechanical (friction), or chemical mechanism. The generation of luminescence through the excitation of a molecule by photons of ultraviolet or visible light is a phenomenon called photoluminescence. This is formally divided into two categories, fluorescence and phosphorescence. Depending on the electronic configuration of the excited state and the emission pathway.

Fluorescence is the property of some atoms and molecules to absorb light at a particular wavelength. And subsequently emitting longer wavelength light after a short interval, called the fluorescence lifetime. The phosphorescence process occurs in a similar way to fluorescence, but with a much longer excited lifetime.

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Tipos de Microscopios

Optical microscopes

They are equipped with a light source that illuminates the sample and an optical lens system capable of imaging such a sample. Optical microscopes allow the use of various observation techniques thanks to the configuration of various parameters

Electronic microscopes

The sample is passed through by a beam of electrons. The magnification capacity of electronic models is much higher than that of the light microscope and can reach two million. Electron microscopes are in turn divided into two main types: transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM).

Scanning probe microscopes

A probe is used to scan the surface of the sample to determine the topography. Some microscopes offer spatial resolution that reaches the atomic scale. This is the case, for example, of atomic force microscopes (AFM) and near field microscopes (SNOM).

Dark Field Microscopes

It is a type of microscope that has a special condenser that directs the light rays from the side, so that it illuminates the sample obliquely. The microscope lenses receive only the light scattered by the different cellular components

Phase Contrast Microscopes

It is based on the existence of small differences in the refractive index in different parts of each cell and tissue; when light passes through regions of higher refractive index, it experiences a delay or deflection and is out of phase with respect to the main beam of light waves.

Polarization Microscopes

It has a light polarizing prism, which only lets polarized light pass towards the sample. Another filter, analyzer, is placed above the sample. Both filters can be oriented so that if their main sections intersect perpendicularly

Inverted Microscopes

In inverted microscopes, the objective nosepiece is located below the stage, and the lighting system and condenser, above it. This allows to have a wide working distance and to be able to observe cells growing in culture media.

Fluorescence Microscopes

It is characterized by having a high intensity light source and two filter systems. One of these systems filters the light before it reaches the sample, so that only the wavelength that excites the fluorescent molecules to be visualized passes through.

Microscopes Dissection

It is frequently used to work with samples that have a greater need to be dissected to see in more detail the small parts that compose them, be they from plants, insects and even electronic panels. Or just to see objects like stamps, coins, rocks, ect.

KALSTEIN UPDATED

What is your ideal laboratory microscope?

There are countless models, so it is normal that you do not know which Laboratory Microscope to buy that suits your needs. At Kalstein, we test them to find what you're looking for.

¿How does a planochromatic microscope work?

The objective of a microscope is the most important and complex element of the light microscope. It is important because the objective is where most of the magnification provided by the microscope occurs.

¿How to remove fungi from microscopes?

Microscopes are essential equipment in any laboratory, some are very simple while others are more complex equipment; however all are made up of many parts that require proper maintenance

¿How does the weather affect your microscope?

The microscope is an instrument that allows to observe objects that are not perceptible to the human eye. This is achieved through an optical system composed of lenses, which form and amplify the image of the object.

¿How does a phase contrast microscope work?

Phase contrast microscopy was invented by the Dutch physicist Frits Zernike in 1932. This great invention earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953. The main difficulty in observing living cells was that they are practically transparent. For this reason, if they were looked at through a conventional microscope with transmitted light, it was very difficult or even impossible to observe their microscopic details and structures. The usual solution to this problem was to use staining techniques.

Microscopes

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